Hypertension refers to a state where a person’s blood pressure is 140/90mmHg or higher than the normal blood pressure of 120/80mmHg. There are several levels of hypertension categorized into prehypertension120-139/80-89, stage 1 hypertension: 140-159/90-99 and stage 2 hypertension: 160+/100+. The condition is dangerous to the human body, it makes the heart work beyond the normal rate which can result in a stroke, hardening of the arteries and heart failure (Ioannidis, 2018).
The primary causes of hypertension include sympathetic nervous system activation, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and theory vasopressor. Secondary hypertension is caused by the presence of high blood pressure and associated with oral contraceptives, renal insufficiency and Reno vascular diseases .Other disorders causing secondary hypertension include metabolic disorders, parenchymal renal disorders and CNS ailments. Some of the risk factors associated with hypertension include: obese, smoking, family history of hypertension, old age, sleep apnea, stress, consumption of alcoholic and kidney diseases (Navar, 2016).
NANDA defines risk for decreased cardiac output as inadequate blood that has been pumped by the heart in order to meet the metabolic requirements that are on demand by the body. It is evidenced by decreased cardiac output.
Outcomes/goals for decreased cardiac output
NANDA defines acute pain as an emotional experience combined with an unpleasant sensory feeling that can occur from an actual tissue damage on the body (Kurucová, 2018). The experience moves from a slow onset to a mild intensity and a finally a severe intensity.
Acute pain in a case of hypertension is evidenced by a persistent throb in the head and sleepiness, patient reports not sleeping and changes appetite. Others can have nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision and nick stiffness.
Patient must report that they do not suffer from a headache and must appear pain free or comfortable.
NANDA defines activity intolerance as the inadequate psychological energy to endure and complete the normal daily activities. It is evidenced by one feeling tiredness or fatigue, abnormal heart when engaging in activity, dyspnea and changes in the dysrhythmias (Guedes, 2013).
NANDA defines ineffective coping as the ability to have valid appraisal of environmental stressors, poor choices in practice response and inability to use accessible resources. It is evidenced by a patient inability to cope with normal activities and asks for help .Patients exhibit anxiety, depression, worry and irritability. Others can have destructive behaviors evidenced by lack of appetite and overreacting.
NANDA defines imbalanced body requirements as the intake of human nutrients that are in excess of metabolic needs. It is evidenced by a patient’s weight being abnormal in comparison to their frame and height. Patient’s exhibit dysfunctional eating patterns that can be reported or observed by the nurse.
NANDA defines knowledge deficit as the lack of or insufficiency of cognitive information in relation to as specific topic. This is evidenced by verbalization of the issue, patient requires the application of information and is unable to understand the information. Patient fails to follow the instructions and appears to be upset on the given information.
Guedes, N. G. (2013). Review of nursing diagnosis sedentary lifestyle in individuals with hypertension: conceptual analysis. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 47(3), 734-41.
Ioannidis, J. P. (2018). Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines and in the real world. Jama, 319(2), 115-116.
Kurucová, R. Ž. (2018). CLINICAL VALIDATION OF NURSING DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE PAIN. Central European Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 9(1), 781-790.
Navar, A. M. (2016). Assessing cardiovascular risk to guide hypertension diagnosis and treatment. JAMA cardiology, 1(8), 864-871.